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Terminal Layout

Located on a 40-hectare plot at the southern-most tip of Jurong Island, the Singapore LNG Terminal is the first open-access, multi-user LNG terminal in Asia.


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Boil-off Gas Compressors

LNG is transported and stored as a boiling liquid at slightly higher than atmospheric pressure. Any influx of heat from the atmosphere or from pumps generates vapour, also known as boil-off gas. The boil-off gas can be recovered using the Boil-off Gas Compressors and Recondenser.

There are three 10t/h vertical reciprocating Boil-off Gas Compressors at the Terminal. These compressors are used to control the pressure in the LNG Storage Tanks by withdrawing boil-off gas and sending it either to the Recondenser (normal operation) or directly to the natural gas send-out lines (in zero send-out mode).


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Control Room

The Terminal’s operations are managed from the Control Room, which runs 24 hours a day, every day. It controls all LNG processes from the unloading of LNG, storage of LNG in tanks to regasification and send-out.


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Flare Stack

The Flare Stack safely burns any gas that cannot be handled by the Terminal. It serves as an important safety device, should the pressure in equipment or piping rises above specified limits. It can also be used to dispose boil-off gas that does not meet strict specifications during LNG carrier cool-down or reloading.


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Gas Metering

The Terminal has the capability to send natural gas to the Singapore Gas Grid via three pipelines. To ensure accurate measurements of flow, a fiscal pay-check metering system mounted on skids is installed. Gas Analysers are also installed to measure Gas Composition, Wobbe Index and Dew Point, ensuring that the natural gas sent out meets the Singapore Gas Specifications.


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HP LNG Booster Pumps

The High Pressure (HP) LNG Booster Pumps increase the pressure of the LNG to the required send out pressure of approximately 45 barg and deliver the LNG to the Open Rack Vapourisers (ORVs) and the Submerged Combustion Vapouriser (SCV). Two types of pumps are installed with delivery capacity of 250m3/h and 480m3/h.The pumps are installed in in-ground pits for safety reasons.


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Jetties

The Terminal is designed with 3 jetties that can accommodate ships of various sizes. The Primary Jetty is designed to berth, unload and reload LNG carriers of 120,000m3 to 265,000m3 (QMax) in capacity. The Secondary Jetty is designed to berth, unload and reload LNG carriers of 60,000m3 to 265,000m3 (QMax) , as well as unload refrigerated LPG carriers from 60,000m3 to 80,000m3 capacity. The Tertiary Jetty is designed to berth and reload small LNG carriers of 10,000 m3 to 40,000m3 in capacity.


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LNG Storage Tanks

LNG is stored in Storage Tanks at just above atmospheric pressure and approximately -161°C, depending on the source of the LNG. The Storage Tanks at the Terminal are of full containment design, with an inner primary tank made of 9% Nickel Steel and an outer tank made of reinforced concrete. A thick layer of Perlite insulation is used between the inner and outer tanks to reduce heat leak from the atmosphere, thus minimising boil-off gas generation. To avoid any risk of uncontrolled spill, all instrumentation and piping connections to the tank are routed through the tank roof. Tanks 1, 2 and 3 each has a working capacity of 180,000m3 and can fit two A380 aircraft, stacked one on top of another, within each tank.


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LP LNG In-Tank Pumps

Each LNG Storage Tank is equipped with three-column-mounted submerged-motor Low Pressure (LP) Send-out Pumps to deliver LNG from the bottom of the tanks to the High Pressure (HP) LNG Booster Pumps via the Recondenser. These pumps are also used to pump LNG to and from the jetties to keep the large diameter (40”) LNG transfer lines cold. Each pump can deliver 407m3/h at approximately 12 barg to the suction of the HP LNG Booster Pumps.


LNG Reloading In-Tank Pumps

Each LNG Storage Tank is equipped with at least two-column-mounted submerged-motor LNG Reloading Pumps to deliver LNG from the bottom of the tanks to a connected LNG carrier for export or break-bulk services. These pumps are also used to send LNG to different tanks to manage the tank inventories. Each pump can deliver 2,000m3/h at approximately 6 barg.

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Marine Loading Arms

The Marine Loading Arms (MLAs) connect the LNG carrier berthed at the jetty to the terminal. Each jetty is equipped with 2 Liquid, 1 Vapour and 1 Hybrid MLAs. The MLAs allow LNG transfer to and from the onshore storage tanks at a rate of 12,000m3/h. Each MLA has an automatic emergency release coupling to ensure rapid and safe disconnection from the LNG carrier in the event of an emergency.


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Open Rack Vapouriser (ORV)

The vapourisers transform LNG back into gaseous state by warming the liquid using heat from water, before delivery to a pipeline system. At the Singapore LNG Terminal, there are two types of vapourisers in use – the Open Rack Vapouriser and Submerged Combustion Vapouriser.

The 4 x 200t/h Open Rack Vapourisers (ORVs) use seawater to heat and vapourise the LNG. The ORVs are the main method of vapourisation.


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Recondenser

The Recondenser is capable of condensing all the boil-off gas generated in the Terminal. The boil-off gas generated during normal operations is routed to the Recondenser where it is contacted with sub-cooled LNG in a packed bed that creates a large surface area for vapour-liquid contact, thereby ensuring that all the boil-off gas is condensed. This avoids flaring during operations and ensures that no LNG is wasted.


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Seawater Pumps

Seawater is used in large quantities as the main heat source for vapourising LNG in the Open Rack Vapourisers (ORVs). The seawater is pumped to the ORVs by four 8,160 m3/h vertically mounted pumps in the Seawater Intake Basin. The intake basin is designed so that floating debris is kept out of the Seawater Intake system.


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Submerged Combustion Vapouriser

The Submerged Combustion Vapouriser (SCV) uses approximately 1.5% of the send-out gas flow rate as fuel to heat up a water bath. The LNG flows through a tube bundle exchanger immersed in the water bath in order to vapourise into natural gas. The SCV is used as a back up to the ORVs should the seawater system be out of action.


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